clarahow: (pagingkarenpage)
what is ethnography?

up-close and personal study of others' culture

James Spradley (1980) : "the work of describing a culture"

participant observation involves:
establishing rapport in a new community
learn to act so that people go about their as usual when you show up
removing yourself from everyday cultural immersion so you intellectualize what you've learned, put it into perspective, and write about it convincingly (not become nativized)
direct first-hand observation of daily behavior
(ex. ritual cannibalism - human sacrifice, offerings to deities never wasted)
key informant/consultant
in-depth interview (life history)
discover people's beliefs
emic (try to understand anything and everything from participant perspective, simple questioning, no cross-checking, non-scientific) and etic (cross-checking, in-depth) approaches
learning local language
open-ended and closed questions
"What is your favorite Taylor Swift song?"

language and culture

semantic universality
characteristic that distinguishes the human use of speech from animal communication
fundamental features of human languages that make semantic universality a thing:
-productivity : competency within a given language enable a speaker to generate an infinite number of messages about an unlimited range of subjects, create ever-new messages and to infinitely elaborate on the details of previous utterances
-displacement : capacity of language to refer beyond the immediate situation of the speaker and to communicate information about displaced domains such as the distant past, imaginary events, hypothetical occurrences, future events, etc - animal vocalization remains strictly tied to immediate environmental stimuli
-arbitrariness : connection between sounds and their meanings are nearly always an arbitrary relationship

branch of linguistics is concerned with how people use language in real-life interaction
the ways in which people speak to each other can reveal underlying attitudes and beliefs about identity, gender relations, social status and class position
dialects may be used to create and maintain social boundaries between social groups and regions
use in stratified societies
all elements (including language) are subject to change and evolution
all languages develop and change historically

code switching (between languages)


Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
founder of demography, science of population study

level of population is determined by the amount of food produced

predicted that population would rise much faster than any increase in productivity/food supply, therefore humanity would be doomed to hunger and misery {Malthusian theory} (erroneous)
-failed to understand the relationship between population growth and the intensification and diversification of food production
the issue is distribution, not production
-population pressure provides motivation to overcome limits by adopting new modes of production through technological innovation and intensification
-many preindustrial societies maintain their level of production well below carrying capacity (def. upper limit of energy production)
-colonialism is main reason for poverty

mode of food production is a basic part of any society's infrastructure

five major modes of production:
hunting and gathering/foraging (only mode used by humans until about 12k years ago, supports small band societies (25-40) but not large groups) | horticulture | pastoralism | agriculture with irrigation and use use of plow | industrial agriculture // (can support increasingly high populations)

"the point of diminishing returns"
clarahow: (pagingkarenpage)
The 100: Clarke/Raven: Road Trip - prompted by [livejournal.com profile] paperclipbitch
+ drabble cycle: kinks: 30A #25: temperature
Rated M | 250w | Pit Stop

Their post-graduation road trip goes a bit sour when Raven's car breaks down...but only a bit.

Raven strips off her jacket, grimacing as its sweat-soaked interior reluctantly leaves her skin; she drops it to the floor and kicks off her Doc Martens.

"If you'd let me drive, we wouldn't have had this problem," she asserts as Clarke joins her in the motel room.

"Oh, can it," Clarke pushes back, starting to strip. The unclipped halter of her jumper snaps and bounces forward over her chest, and Raven's confronted again with the frilly pink bra she'd chosen for the day's drive.

"It's not my fault your car hates me."

"Well, it's not like it's the car's fault, Clarke!"

Clarke scoffs.

"You know, if you'd dressed more appropriately, you wouldn't be so desperate to undress."

"I wouldn't bet on that," Raven smirks. "Besides, this is my outfit."

"Okay," Clarke pretends to accept the answer as she steps out of the shorts of her jumper and tosses the garment to the single bed in the center of the room. Apparently, her panties match her bra. That was so Clarke.

The bed creaks underneath Raven as she sits on its edge to take off her pants, but even laying down, the zipper isn't working for her. She grunts in forfeiture, but then feels a soft hand at her navel.

"Looks like you need a little help," Clarke murmurs.

"...I'm still mad you broke my fucking car."

"Still not my fault...but I'll meet you in the middle and make up for it."

Clarke undoes the zipper with a single yank.


8/7/15 17:37
clarahow: (pagingkarenpage)
lol I've brought this up before BUT LOOK AT THIS jeez [livejournal.com profile] badly_knitted